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Top 10 Famous Muslim Scientists of all Time

Top 10 Famous Muslim Scientists of all Time

Muslim Scientists

Without these great people’s knowledge and influence, the world would not be what it is now.

The Muslim scientist and their inventors were most likely hundreds of years ahead of their corresponding item in the European Middle Ages. They brought influence from Aristotelian Philosophy and Neo-Platonists, including Archimedes, Ptolemy, Euclid and others. The great Muslim scientists made immeasurable discoveries and wrote innumerable books about surgery, physics, philosophy, medicine, chemistry, geometry, astrology and various other fields. Let’s have a look at the top 10 famous Muslim scientists of all time and how their work still has a major collision on our day-to-day life.

1- Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

Musa al-Khwarizmi

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was a famous Persian mathematician and known as the father of Algebra. He was contributed hugely to the advancement of mathematics, astronomer, astrologer geographer and language as well.

He was born is Persia around 780. He was that taught men who worked in the House o Wisdom, Baghdad. The algorithm in mathematics was his invention. He was introduced Indian numerals in 12 century which were translated into Latin and gained popularity in the western world. This great man also updated Ptolemy’s Geography and also wrote on astronomy and astrology. His famous books:

  • Hisab Al-Hindi
  • Al Jama-Wat Tafri
  • Kitab Al Amal bil Asturlab
  • Kitab Ama of Asturlab
  • Kitab Surat Al Ard

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2- Abu Ali al-Husyan ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sina

Abu Ali Sina

He was born in 980 CE, and Persian Polymath, who was documented as one of the most brilliant minds in that age. He worked on 450 projects and 240 of those works built-in medicine work.

‘The Book of Healing’ was his most important project that became a standard medical conduct at many universities during that age and was second-hand until the 16th century.  He also contributed to astronomy, geology, physics, geography and mathematics. Famous Books:

  • Ash-Shfa
  • An-Najat
  • Nafia
  • Isharrat

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3- Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan

Jabir ibn Hayyan

Abu Musa Jabir ibn commonly acknowledged as Geber. He was a Persian personality and born in 721 AD. He works in different fields including chemistry, astronomy, alchemy, astrology, pharmacy, physics, philosophy, medicine and also work on philanthropist.

His work is extremely secured and exoteric. Till now, nobody knows the codes. He is famous as a father of chemistry due to his great work in the chemistry field. In the 10th century, his projects were identified and in dispute in Islamic circles. His name was famous in the Christian West and 13th century his popularity was covered the Europe country too. In the entire world, he became a most famous personality, till toady. He is an anonymous writer, commonly acknowledged as Pseudo-Geber, and produced writing in the metallurgical and alchemical field, underneath the pen-name Geber. He wrote the following significant Books:

  • Kitab al Rahfnah
  • Kitabal Taj mi
  • Composition of alchemy

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4- Al-Jazari


Badi az-Zaman Abu I-Izz Ismail ar-Razaz al-Jazari was a Turk Muslim Polymath. He is a great scholar, inventor, artisan, artist, mechanical engineer, and mathematician. He got the more popularity after writing the book of “The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, in 1206.

In this book he described 100 mechanical devices, 80 are trick vessels of various kinds, along with instruction on how to construct them.

5- Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani


He was the greatest scientist, born in the 9th century in Baghdad. He had the interest in the Ptolemy field. In the West he was known as Alfarghani, was an Arab or Persian Sunni Muslim astronomer. He was the famous scientist in the 9th century.

He was involved in the work of calculation of the Diameter of the Earth by the measurement of the meridian arc length, with a team of scientists under the patronage of al-Ma’mum in Baghdad. Around 856, he moved to Cairo and where he cool, calm and collected a treatise on the astrolabe.

Famous books:

  • Elements of Astronomy

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6- Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Razi

Ibn Zakariya Razi

He was great Persian Muslim professional physician born in 854 CE. He is famous as known as Rhazes in the West. He has the great interest in chemistry and physics. He was a great philosopher who contributed to various fields of science as well as medicine, philosophy, mathematics, ethics, music and chemistry.

He got the title of the Father of Pediatrics by writing his monograph on “Diseases in children.” He was an excellent medicine teacher, and he was the first scientist who classifies stuff into vegetables, minerals, and animals. These are his famous books:

  • Arabian Medicine
  • Al-Hawi
  • Kitab A1 Mansuri
  • A1 Judari Wal Hasbah
  • Kitab Al-Asrar
  • Barr-Ul-Saat
  • Fi Jamal il Musuqi

7- Abu Rayahan Al-Biruni


He is popular with his name Al-Biruni. He was a well-known physicist, astronomer, psychologist, geographer, human nature philosopher, and psychologist and born in 973 CE. Al-Biruni was a born writer and he never has a pen out of his hand.

For Indian knowledge investigation, he mainly learned the Sanskrit language. He explained the problems of advanced trigonometry. He was the person who first time invited the Light travels faster than sound. He gave an understanding to the terms of longitudes and latitudes. He wrote these famous books:

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  • Tahqiq Al-Hind
  • Qamun Al-Masudi
  • Asrar Al-Baqiya
  • Kitab Al-Saidana
  • Kitab Al-Saidana
  • Al-Tafhim

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8- Al-Khazini


Al-Khazini’s full name was Abu al-Fath Abd Al-Rahman Mansour, and he was known by this name, born in Byzantine, Greece in 900 AD. He was good Muslim astronomer of Greek ethnicity from Merv, then in the Khorasan Province of Persia.  Merv was famous for its scientific and literary achievements.

He did not work for wealth and did not accept Dinar for his work, and he always likes to live in his household with his cat and himself. He was famous due to his original observations. His work got most popularity in the Islamic world and few other places too.

His best-known works are:

  • Balance of Wisdom
  • Treatise on Astronomical Wisdom
  • The Astronomical Tables for Sanjar

 9- Ibn Al-Haytham

Ibn Al-Haytham

Abū ʿAlī al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham was also famous by the Latin name Alhacen or Alhazen. He was an Arab scientist, was born in 965 AD, Basra, Iraq. He made many great contributions to physics, mathematics, optician, psychology, medicine and engineering.

He was rewarded with the name of “father of modern optics” and his optician work was also translated into Latin. He recognized gravity as a power, a theory which was later on developed by Newton. Famous Books:

  • Uyunul Ariba Fi Tabaqaat il Atibba
  • Kitab AlManazir
  • On Twilight Phenomena
  • Mizanul Hikma
  • Configuration of the Universe

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10- Al- Kindi

Al- Kindi


Abu Yusuf Ya’qub ibn Ishaq as-Sabbah al-Kindi was usually known as AlKindi. He was the Muslim Arab Philosopher, born in 801 AD, Basra, Iraq. He was contributed in the various fields of scientist, cosmologist, meteorologist, astrologer and musician.

He also contributed to the introduction of Indian numerals to the Islamic and Christian world. He also contributed to natural sciences, logistics, physics, and chemistry. Famous Books:

  • De Aspectibus
  • De Medicinarum Compsitarum Gradibus
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